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Studio Tricks

Hello, All --

Just as our former home ground to a halt, I received a nice letter from
Grant Stavely, who was soon to have his first the opportunity to go into
the studio.  I'm very flattered that he asked me for my advice about how he
should prepare.

Somehting I told Grant was that studio recording, like anything else, takes
practice.  To expect too much of oneself early in the game is to invite
major disappointment.

This led me to think about Zeppelin's own proficiency in the studio, and
how it progressed from 1969 through 1979.  Right now, I invite you to
review your mental snapshots of ITTOD and Zeppelin I.  Without immediate
deep analysis, I'm sure you can tell that ITTOD is a much more complex
recording than Zeppelin I.  Wanna know why?  Read on.

First, technology had developed tremendously in the ten years that
separated Zep I and ITTOD.  "State of the Art" had gone from 8-tracks in
1969 to 24 or even 48 tracks in 1979, giving the recording musician a
greater deal of flexibility. Tape heads had been refined and tape speed
increased, which increased fidelity.  Studio tools such as reverb, delay
and compression had been vastly improved, making more complex sounds
available to the musician.  While guitars and amps hadn't changed much (and
Page was still using instruments that were, by and large, built in the
'50s), keyboards had changed dramatically.  In 1969, JPJ owned a Hammond
Organ and perhaps a Fender Rhodes electric piano, and while these
instruments still sound great to this day, they were hardly what you might
call the pinnacle of technology ca. 1979.  By the time Zeppelin recorded
ITTOD, the synthesizer had been born, which was a much more complex beast.
A synthesizer is an electronic instrument that allows a musician to
determine the sounds it makes by manipulating waveforms, as opposed to
having just one kind of "fixed voice" that is predetermined by the
instrument's builder.  And while synth technology in the '90s makes synths
from the '70s look like primitive stone tools, '70s synths made '60s
keyboards look like primordial ooze.

More important than any of the technology, however, was that the musicians
in Led Zeppelin were vastly more adept at capturing themselves on tape.  As
I said earlier, knowing how to use a studio is a skill which must be
practiced.  As you probably all know, Page earned his living as a studio
guitarist before he formed Zeppelin.  As such he spent his life in
recording studios.  John Paul Jones also made his living this way.  Most of
this work, however, was at someone else's direction; you've probably
noticed that when you're trying to learn something new, watching someone
else do it is vastly different from doing it yourself. Imagine learning to
read, for example.

That doesn't mean you learn nothing from watching, though. From his studio
career, Page would certainly have picked up some ideas about how to mike
instruments, how to mix different elements to create interesting songs, how
to positon instruments in a mix, etc.  And he definitely would have learned
that preparation is a key to success.  So let's take a look at Zeppelin I
and see what he did with it.

Preparation for Zeppelin I took the form of a ten day tour of Scandinavia
(I would kill for a tape of one of *those* shows...).  That's not really
much time, and there are moments on their first album that show the band to
be under-rehearsed.  Minor example:  Bonham's "untight" entry in "Your Time
is Gonna Come."  Relatively major example:  notice at the end of Page's
guitar solo in Dazed and Confused, Bonham misses the return to the chords
and catches up with Page on the second phrase.  Hardly the sort of thing
that ruins a recording, but also not the sort of thing Zeppelin wouldn't
dare leave in subsequent recordings.  Imagine "Kashmir" with an untight
downbeat.  Think of the hours the boys spent getting IMTOD correct before
recording it.

Notice that the guitar tones don't vary much from song to song.  In Page's
own words, he recorded Zeppelin I "with a Telecaster, a tiny Supro amp and
just a couple of pedals."  While his distortion ranges from the relatively
clean sound of ICQYB to the fully saturated snarl of YSM, you can pretty
much tell that it's the same guitar and amp throughout.  (This may have
more to do with Jimmy's reputation as "Led Wallet" than it does with
learning how to record, but I doubt it.) It's also important to remember
that the album was engineered by Andy Johns and not Jimmy Page, and the
engineer is a critical link in the sound chain.  However, later Zeppelin
records were also engineered by people who weren't Jimmy (got it? ;), so
Andy Johns can't be held solely responsible for the similarity in tone.
IMHO, lack of experience and the incredibly fast working pace of the Zep I
sessions are responsible for Page's tonal similarities.  By contrast, think
of Ten Years Gone; that *one song* -- recorded over more days than the
entirety of Zeppelin I -- has perhaps six distinct guitar tones.

Furthermore, the songs feature rather straightforward pop arrangements.
GTBT, BIGLY, CB, YSM, YTIGC, ICQYB, and even D&C are all basically standard
verse-chorus-verse-chorus-solos-verse-chorus arrangements made popular by
blues guys as far back as anyone can remember.

Flash forward to Zeppelin II.  Whoa!  The band's a lot tighter, which makes
sense when you consider that they'd been touring almost non-stop since they
recorded Zep I.  Musically and personally, the boys have gotten to know one
another.  The guitar tones are much more varied: the crunch of WLL, the
otherworldly shimmer of WIAWSNB, the scream of BIOH, the thousand-foot-tall
bludgeon that is Heartbreaker.  Page has figured some stuff out, for sure.
Arrangement-wise, WLL falls just far enough outside verse-chorus to call it
unique, and WIAWSNB has a very cool coda.

With two albums worth of experience under their collective belts, Zeppelin
really branched out with Zeppelin III.  Alternate tunings, loads of
acoustic stuff, chimey guitars, cool special effects...  The boys had
learned the basics of studio recordings, and now they were casting that
aside to try new and different things.  That, friends, is the hallmark of
an artist: always reaching for something new.  Picture "Celebration Day."
It has a guitar intro that sounds like nothing we've heard from Zeppelin as
yet, and some interesting (and weird) effects, but it's still unmistakably
our boys.  And what the *hell* is "Hats off to Roy Harper"?  It's great,
but what *is* it?  Just guitar and an evil vocal recorded through a guitar
amp.  Way cool, but crazy.  We haven't heard anything like this from
Zeppelin before.  And it shares an album with "That's the Way" and SIBLY,
which might make Zep III the most varied album of the time period.

So much has been said by me and others about Zep IV that I'm just going to
gloss over it.  You want dramatic arrangements?  Try Stairway, Four Sticks,
When the Levee Breaks, and Going to California.  You want unique guitar
tones?  How about Black Dog, Rock and... hell, all of 'em.  You want cool
lyrics?  Umm, a couple are kind of dumb, but STH, BoE, MMH, GtC, BD are
groovy.  You want tight performances?  I'm sure you get the idea.
Unquestionably, Zeppelin IV shows us that Led Zeppelin had mastered the use
of the studio.

Despite McCue's contention that Houses was poorly produced (I almost made
my *own* death list after reading that), it shows that our boys *still*
haven't stagnated in the studio.  To start with, the amalgamated drum sound
of Houses is much richer than that of Zep IV.  And Page's guitars are a
desert rainbow of colors: almost nasal in places (The Ocean), rich and warm
in others (OTHAFA), stringy (D'yer Mak'r), chimey (TSRS) -- they are a full
spectrum of colors.  There *aren't* any more guitar tones -- Page has
explored them all.  Plant's lyrics include "Dancing Days," which IMHO might
be his best lyrics ever.  And if they aren't, then his lyrics to The Rain
Song are.  And The Rain Song has a wonderfully orchestrated arrangement;
the big peak late in the song always makes me smile.  The band has reached
it's pinnacle in terms of songwriting, arranging, and producing.

Physical Graffiti capitalizes on all this knowledge.  Rich songs, intense
arrangements, and powerful sounds characterize nearly every song.  Very
little of it is new to Zeppelin (or the listener), but every element is
where it should be. The evil heaviness of "the Rover."  The upbeat heavy
funk of "The Wanton Song."  The boogie groove of "Night Flight."  Sure,
there are some tracks which never would have been released had the boys not
decided to do a double (Boogie with Stu barely even has a *title*), but
these "filler" tracks only increase the albums diversity and richness.
"Kashmir" -- arguably the crystalization of Zeppelin's magic -- simply
could not have been brought to wax by this band any sooner. There's no
*way* a young musician flush with his own ego could play a song as long as
"Kashmir" with so much restraint.  Bonham could hardly be accused of
stepping on the song, and neither could Plant or Jones or Page.  The groove
is relentless, yet understated.  "Kashmir" is a perfect arrangement; add
something and it would sound busy, take anything away and it would sound
empty.  That is what studio recording is all about -- building the perfect

Most of the tracks on Physical Graffiti eclipse Zeppelin's first few albums
in terms of pure sound quality.  Need proof?  Grab Disc Four of the Box Set
and listen to "Wanton Song", followed by "Moby Dick."  Better yet, listen
to the Box Set in its entirety, as I chanced to do last night as I was
working.  This segue between songs completely threw me for a loop.  As you
know, the Box Set is organized in a loosely chronological manner.  As we
listen from start to finish, our ears don't notice any dramatic change in
sound quality because the improvements take place gradually over a vast
number of songs.  We receive a three-steps forward, one step back approach
to improved production quality.  And I find it especially interesting that
the material from PG, Presence, and ITTOD flows so smoothly that I often
need to remind myself which album specific songs came from.  But in this
one moment of transition between "Wanton Song" and "Moby Dick," we are
instantly reminded how far Zeppelin has come in making great-sounding

Which leads me to Presence.  As many of you know, Presence is not my
favorite Zeppelin album.  There are a few tracks that I enjoy, but taken as
a whole the album bores me.  It sounds fantastic: warm, sparkly, and lush.
Yet, in the context of this recording discussion, it's easy for me to tell
you why I don't care for it: there is very little variation between tracks.
Yes, the album was created in a short period, and it reflects a different
kind of energy than it's sprawling predecessor, but something I cherish has
been lost.  The arrangements needed another go-'round of tightening --
great riffs repeated ad nauseum do not make great songs.  Compare "For Your
Life" with "Kashmir"; each has just a small number of riffs, repeated many
times.  "Kashmir," when it ends, has led you through the ticket and
deposited you, blinking, into the light.  "For Your Life" leaves you
wondering, "huh?"  (And FYL, for me, is one of the better tracks on the
album.)  "Achilles' Last Stand" is waaaaay too long (sort of like this
e-mail ;).  Sure, it *sounds* great (every track does), and that's the
result of Page and Co knowing what they're doing in the studio.  But every
track sounds great the same way, and I find that a little boring.  Yes, I
know I said most of Zeppelin I sounds much the same, but Zep I succeeds
where Presence fails. In 1969, the rock climate needed the hurricane that
was Zep I, and the youthful energy we hear on their first album excuses
some of Zep I's faults.  By 1976, Zeppelin had changed the way records were
made, and to follow something as rich and varied as Physical Graffiti with
something as plain as Presence leaves me disappointed.

Well, we've arrived at ITTOD.  This has been called "Jonesy's album."
Surely, the songs are built around keyboards rather than guitars.  Most of
these keyboards weren't yet a gleam in an engineer's eye in 1969.
"Carouselambra," "In the Evening," "All My Love..."  Each of these features
a synth, and more importantly, and *attitude* that didn't exist for
Zeppelin in 1969.  Tracks like "South Bound Suarez" and "Hot Dog" feature
the piano, which was invented in the 17th century.  Nonetheless, Zeppelin
couldn't have recorded them any sooner -- imagine "South Bound Suarez"
performed by musicians with a Zep I attitude and I think you'll see what I

On ITTOD, all of Zeppelin's accumulated knowledge is brought to bear. The
drums are big and "roomy."  The guitars are orchestrated so smoothly you
barely notice that they're orchestrated -- dig those harmonized, ascending
fuzz-guitar lines in "In The Evening".  The arrangements feature one
instrument at a time, and by large the songs get in, say what needs to be
said, and get out.  Very nice.  Tasteful restraint is again the rule of the
day; think of "All My Love" and "In The Evening."  These tracks feature
fairly minimal components: just a few vocal and guitar tracks, consise
solos, bridges that serve the song, etc.  "Fool in the Rain" does go a
little overboard (that solo might have been acceptable live, but for a
Jimmy-in-the-studio solo it's pretty mindless), but "I'm Gonna Crawl" is a
great track, and "All My Love" can stand up with "The Rain Song" and
"Tangerine" in the "lovely song" catagory.  Zeppelin could never have
written and recorded this material in 1969.  They simply didn't possess the
knowledge and the experience to pull it off.


Bill O'Neil
Venice, CA, USA
Maker's Mark is mother's milk